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Olecranon (Elbow) Fractures Three bones, the humerus, radius and ulna make up the elbow joint. The bones are held together by ligaments that provide stability to the joint. Muscles and tendons around the bones coordinate the movements and help in performing various activities. Elbow fractures may occur from trauma, resulting from a fall on an outstretched arm, a direct blow to the elbow, abnormal twist to the joint beyond its functional limit, etc. Olecranon fractures are fractures that occur at the bony prominence of the ulna. The fractures, if stable, are treated using an immobilising splint followed by a regimen of motion exercises. However, severe fractures require surgical repair. Symptoms of an olecranon fracture include pain, swelling, bruising, stiffness in and around the elbow, a popping or cracking sound, and deformity of the elbow bones. To diagnose olecranon fractures X-rays of the joint are taken. In some cases, a CT scan may be needed to examine the details of the joint surface. The aim of treatment is to maximise early motion and reduce the risk of stiffness. Nonsurgical treatment options include the use of a splint or a sling to immobilise the elbow during the healing process. Surgery is indicated in displaced and open fractures to realign the bones and stabilise the joint as well as to avoid deep infections. Strengthening exercises, scar massage, therapy with ultrasound, heat and ice are recommended to improve the range of motion. Splints are also used to facilitate stretching of the joint.
Radial Head Fractures The elbow is a junction between the forearm and upper arm. The elbow joint is made up of 3 bones, namely the humerus bone in the upper arm, which joins with the radius and ulna bones in the forearm. The elbow joint is essential for the movement of your arms for daily activities. The head of the radius bone is cup-shaped and corresponds to the spherical surface of the humerus. The injury in the head of the radius causes impairment in the function of the elbow. Radial head fractures are very common and occur in almost 20% of acute elbow injuries. Elbow dislocations are generally associated with radial head fractures. Radial head fractures are more common in women than in men and occur more frequently in the age group of 30 and 40 years. The most common cause of radial head fractures is breaking a fall with an outstretched arm. Radial head fractures can also occur due to a direct impact on the elbow, a twisting injury, sprain, dislocation or strain. The symptoms of a radial head fracture include severe pain, swelling in the elbow, difficulty in moving the arm, visible deformity indicating dislocation, bruising and stiffness. Your doctor may recommend an X-ray to confirm the fracture and assess displacement of the bone. Sometimes, your doctor may suggest a CT scan to obtain further details of the fracture, especially the joint surfaces. The treatment of a fracture depends on the type of fracture. Type 1 fractures are usually very small. The bone appears cracked, but remains fitted together. The doctor might use a splint (casting) to fix the bone. You may have to wear a sling for a few days. If the crack becomes intense or the fracture gets deep, then your doctor may suggest surgical treatment. Type 2 fractures are characterised by displacement of bones and breaking of bones into large pieces and can be treated by surgery. During surgery, your doctor will correct the soft-tissue injuries and insert screws and plates to hold the displaced bone firmly together. Small pieces of bone may be removed if it prevents normal movement of the elbow. Type 3 fractures are characterised by multiple broken pieces of bone. Surgery is considered the compulsory treatment to either fix or remove the broken pieces of bone, sometimes including the radial head. An artificial radial head may be placed to improve the function of the elbow.
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